This October 2016 document brings together the findings and conclusions from evidence reviewed by PHE to inform the government’s thinking on sugar in the diet. The review first considers the need for action – how much sugar we eat, where it comes from, the health issues associated with this and the benefits in reducing our intakes. It then moves on, using our analysis of the evidence, to draw conclusions about what drives our consumption and advises on actions that could be implemented to change our sugar intakes. These include the environment around us that influences our food choices; our food supply and changes that could be made to this; knowledge and training; and local action. It follows on from the PHE report, ‘Sugar reduction: Responding to the challenge’, that was published in June 2014, alongside the publication of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition’s draft report on ‘Carbohydrates and health’.